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Economic advantages and disadvantages of extended producer responsibility (EPR) program for plastic waste in India


Economic advantages and disadvantages of the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) program for plastic waste in India have gained significant attention worldwide as a means to address the environmental challenges posed by plastic waste. In the context of India, a country grappling with severe plastic pollution, implementing EPR programs for plastic waste management carries both economic advantages and disadvantages. This blog explores these aspects comprehensively.

Economic Advantages of EPR Programs for Plastic Waste in India

Job Creation

EPR programs necessitate the establishment of collection and recycling infrastructure. This creates jobs in the waste collection, sorting, and recycling industries. In a country like India, with a large labour force, EPR can have a positive impact on employment rates.

Resource Efficiency

Recycling plastic Materials through EPR programs reduces the need for new plastic production. This can lead to resource savings, translating into reduced costs for businesses that rely on plastic materials, such as the packaging industry.

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

The need to find innovative and efficient ways to recycle and manage plastic waste under EPR programs can foster entrepreneurship and stimulate innovation in waste management technologies. This can result in the growth of a green industry sector.

Reduction in Pollution Cost

By lowering the amount of plastic waste ending up in landfills and water bodies, EPR programs can help minimise the economic burden of pollution cleanup and environmental restoration. This can lead to savings for the government.

Consumer Awareness and Behavior Change

EPR programs encourage consumer participation in recycling and waste separation. An informed and responsible consumer base can lead to reduced waste disposal costs and more sustainable consumption patterns.

Secondary Raw Material Supply

EPR programs generate a consistent supply of recycled plastic materials. Industries that use recycled plastics as raw materials can benefit from a stable and potentially cost-effective supply chain.

International Trade Opportunities

As more countries adopt EPR programs and stringent environmental standards, Indian businesses engaged in recycling and sustainable plastic management can explore international trade opportunities. This can lead to increased revenue and foreign exchange earnings.

Economic Disadvantages of EPR Programs for Plastic Waste in India

Initial Implementation Costs

One of the primary disadvantages of EPR programs is the significant upfront costs associated with establishing the necessary infrastructure for waste collection, transportation, and recycling. These costs may burden producers and potentially lead to higher product prices.

Compliance Costs

Producers are responsible for compliance with EPR regulations. This includes setting up collection systems, recycling facilities, and reporting mechanisms. These compliance costs can be substantial and passed on to consumers via higher prices.

Impact on Small Producers

Because of their limited resources, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may face challenges complying with EPR regulations. They may find it more difficult to absorb the associated costs, potentially leading to market consolidation.

Market Distortion

EPR programs can create a market imbalance by favouring large producers with more resources to establish and operate recycling infrastructure. This can potentially stifle competition and innovation in the industry.

Consumer Costs

Consumers may bear the brunt of EPR program costs in the form of higher product prices. This can be a concern, especially in a country with a large population where even marginal price rises can have a huge impact on people’s budgets.

Complexity and Bureaucracy

EPR programs can introduce complexity into the regulatory framework and necessitate a bureaucratic apparatus to monitor and enforce compliance. This can lead to administrative overhead and potential corruption.

Lack of Proper Incentives

EPR programs are effective when producers have strong incentives to reduce waste and promote recycling. In some cases, these incentives may not align with the economic interests of producers, which can result in less effective EPR implementation.

Informal Sector Competition

The informal sector in India plays a significant role in waste management, including plastic recycling. The formalisation of the waste management industry through EPR programs may lead to competition between the formal and informal sectors, potentially causing job displacement and social issues.


EPR programs for plastic waste in India come with a set of economic advantages and disadvantages. While they offer the potential for job creation, resource efficiency, and innovation, they also entail significant initial and compliance costs, potential market distortions, and increased consumer product prices. Finding a balanced strategy that considers the economic context of the country, encourages innovation, and promotes equitable participation of all stakeholders is crucial for the successful implementation of EPR programs in India. This necessitates collaboration between the government, industry, and civil society to develop effective and sustainable solutions for plastic waste management.

Diksha Khiatani

A writer by day and a reader at night. Emerging from an Engineering background, Diksha has completed her M. Tech in Computer Science field. Being passionate about writing, she started her career as a Writer. She finds it interesting and always grabs time to research and write about Environmental laws and compliances. With extensive knowledge on content writing, she has been delivering high-quality write-ups. Besides, you will often find her with a novel and a cuppa!