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Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Plastic Waste Management in India


Plastic waste has become a global environmental menace, and India is no exception. With its growing population and increasing consumption of plastic products, the country faces significant challenges in managing plastic waste. Two critical approaches for addressing this issue are Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This blog explores how EPR and CSR initiatives are employed in India to manage plastic waste effectively.

I. Plastic Waste in India

  • India generates a vast amount of plastic waste each year. According to a report by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the country produced an estimated 25,940 tons of plastic waste every day in 2020. This number is projected to grow as India’s economy expands and urbanisation accelerates.
  • The improper disposal of plastic waste results in several environmental and health issues. Plastic waste often ends up in landfills, rivers, and oceans, causing pollution, harming wildlife, and contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the lack of effective plastic waste management systems exacerbates these problems.
  • To address this issue, India has introduced EPR and CSR initiatives to mitigate the impact of plastic waste and promote responsible corporate behaviour.

II. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)

  • Extended Producer Responsibility or EPR is a policy approach that shifts the responsibility for the end-of-life management of a product from the consumer or local authorities to the producer. In plastic waste management, EPR obligates producers to take responsibility for collecting, recycling, or disposing of the plastic products they introduce into the market.

The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016

  • In India, the Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, laid the foundation for EPR in plastic waste management. These rules mandated that producers and brand owners who introduce plastic products into the market must establish a system to collect and manage plastic waste generated from their products.
  • Producers must work with local authorities, waste pickers, and recyclers to ensure the proper disposal and recycling of their products. They are also expected to meet annual plastic waste collection targets. This regulation has served a crucial role in making producers accountable for the plastic waste they generate.

Progress and Challenges

  • Since introducing the Plastic Waste Management Rules, there has been notable progress in EPR implementation in India. Several companies, particularly in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector, have embraced EPR practices. These companies are taking measures to collect and recycle plastic waste, often in collaboration with NGOs and waste management firms.
  • However, challenges persist. Implementation of EPR varies across different states and sectors. In some regions, compliance with EPR obligations is weak, and a significant portion of plastic waste remains uncollected or unmanaged. Moreover, EPR compliance monitoring and enforcement by regulatory authorities need improvement.
  • To strengthen EPR in plastic waste management, India must address these challenges by streamlining regulations, enhancing enforcement mechanisms, and promoting collaboration between the government, industry, and civil society.

Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2022

The recently introduced Plastic Waste Management Rules 2022 banned single-use plastic items.

III. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Corporate Social Responsibility implies the ethical and sustainable business practices that extend beyond profit generation and involve a company’s commitment to addressing social and environmental issues. In the context of plastic waste management, CSR can encompass initiatives by businesses to reduce their plastic footprint, promote recycling, and contribute to the welfare of local communities and the environment.

CSR in Plastic Waste Reduction

  • Many Indian companies have started integrating plastic waste reduction initiatives into their CSR activities. These initiatives can take various forms, such as reducing single-use plastics in their operations, implementing responsible packaging, and supporting community-based recycling programs.
  • For instance, some companies have pledged to make their packaging more sustainable by using eco-friendly materials and reducing plastic use. Others have launched campaigns to educate consumers about responsible plastic use and recycling.

Collaborative Efforts

  • Collaboration is a key element of effective CSR in plastic waste management. Companies often work with NGOs, government agencies, and local communities to implement their CSR initiatives successfully. These partnerships can result in innovative solutions and a broader impact.
  • Furthermore, some businesses provide financial and technical support to local waste pickers and recycling units, contributing to their livelihoods and improving the plastic waste management infrastructure.

Challenges and Opportunities

  • While CSR initiatives have the potential to bring about positive change, they also face challenges. Some businesses may engage in CSR activities primarily for brand enhancement rather than genuine environmental concerns. There is a need for transparency and accountability in CSR activities to ensure they genuinely benefit the environment and society.
  • India’s government and regulatory bodies can play a role in encouraging responsible CSR practices by providing clear guidelines and monitoring mechanisms. They can also incentivise businesses that actively engage in plastic waste management through their CSR activities.

IV. Synergy between EPR and CSR

  • EPR and CSR are not mutually exclusive; they can effectively complement each other in managing plastic waste. Businesses can incorporate EPR principles into their CSR initiatives, ensuring that they take responsibility for the plastic waste generated by their products. This approach aligns profit motives with environmental stewardship.
  • By combining EPR and CSR, companies can go beyond regulatory compliance and contribute to a more sustainable approach to plastic waste management. This synergy can create a win-win situation, benefiting the environment, society, and the businesses themselves.
  • Moreover, when businesses and government agencies work together, they can develop comprehensive solutions to plastic waste management challenges. This can involve setting up collection and recycling infrastructure, supporting research and innovation in plastics recycling, and promoting public awareness and education.

V. Case Studies

To illustrate the practical application of EPR and CSR in plastic waste management in India, let’s look at a couple of case studies:

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL)

  • Hindustan Unilever Limited, one of India’s leading FMCG companies, has been at the forefront of EPR and CSR efforts. HUL has made significant progress in reducing its plastic footprint by adopting responsible packaging practices, recycling initiatives, and support for waste pickers.
  • HUL has committed to making all its plastic packaging recyclable, reusable, or compostable by 2025. The company collaborates with various stakeholders to improve plastic waste collection and recycling infrastructure.

ITC Limited

  • ITC Limited, another major Indian conglomerate, has undertaken various CSR initiatives to address plastic waste. ITC supports community-based recycling programs and has initiated several awareness campaigns to educate consumers about the responsible use and disposal of plastic.
  • Through these efforts, ITC not only contributes to plastic waste management but also enhances its corporate image and strengthens its relationship with local communities.
  • Like these reputed firms, one must also adhere to the EPR and CSR for Plastic Waste Management in India.


  • Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) play vital roles in plastic waste management in India. EPR mandates that producers take responsibility for the end-of-life management of their plastic products. At the same time, CSR encourages businesses to go beyond profit generation and address environmental and social concerns.
  • Despite progress in EPR and CSR initiatives, challenges persist regarding compliance, enforcement, and transparency. Strengthening these initiatives will require collaboration between businesses, government agencies, and civil society.
  • The synergy between EPR and CSR holds great potential for a more sustainable approach to plastic waste management. By incorporating EPR principles into their CSR activities, businesses may contribute to a cleaner environment and healthier communities while maintaining their competitive edge. Additionally, effective collaboration can lead to comprehensive solutions to India’s plastic waste challenges, making the country a role model for responsible plastic waste management on the global stage.

Diksha Khiatani

A writer by day and a reader at night. Emerging from an Engineering background, Diksha has completed her M. Tech in Computer Science field. Being passionate about writing, she started her career as a Writer. She finds it interesting and always grabs time to research and write about Environmental laws and compliances. With extensive knowledge on content writing, she has been delivering high-quality write-ups. Besides, you will often find her with a novel and a cuppa!