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Insights from international EPR models for plastic waste management and their applicability in the Indian context


Insights from international EPR models for plastic waste management and their applicability in the Indian context

Plastic waste has become a global environmental challenge, with its widespread use and inadequate management practices causing significant harm to ecosystems and human health. To address this issue, Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has emerged as a crucial policy tool in various countries to incentivise producers to manage their products’ end-of-life disposal responsibly. This blog explores insights from international EPR models for plastic waste management. It assesses their applicability in the Indian context, given the unique challenges and opportunities present in the country.

1. International Extended Producer Responsibility(EPR) Models

1.1. European Union (EU)

The European Union has been at the forefront of EPR implementation for plastic waste management. Through various directives and regulations, the EU has set ambitious targets for recycling and minimising plastic waste. The EU’s EPR model requires producers to finance and manage the collection, recycling, and disposal of plastic products they place on the market.

Key Insights:

  1. Stringent Targets: The EU has set clear and strict recycling targets, pushing producers to adopt innovative technologies and methods to meet these targets.
  2. Harmonisation: A harmonised approach to EPR across EU member states ensures consistency in regulations and facilitates cross-border trade, promoting a circular economy.

Applicability in India:

The EU’s EPR model could serve as a reference for India, encouraging the adoption of strict recycling targets and harmonising regulations across states to promote consistency. However, India’s EPR system should be tailored to its unique challenges and capacities.

1.2. Canada

Canada employs a shared responsibility approach to EPR, involving collaboration between industry, governments, and other stakeholders. Producers, retailers, and consumers play a role in managing and recycling plastic waste.

Key Insights:

  1. Multi-Stakeholder Engagement: Canada’s model fosters collaboration between various stakeholders, ensuring a holistic approach to plastic waste management.
  2. Proportional Responsibility: The responsibility for waste management is shared among producers, retailers, and consumers based on their contributions to the waste stream.

Applicability in India:

India could learn from Canada’s approach to EPR by promoting multi-stakeholder engagement and establishing proportional responsibility, ensuring that everyone plays a part in plastic waste management.

1.3. Japan

Japan’s EPR system focuses on municipal solid waste management and includes various materials, including plastic. Producers are obligated to finance and manage recycling efforts for designated products.

Key Insights:

  1. Comprehensive Coverage: Japan’s EPR system covers a wide range of materials, ensuring a holistic approach to waste management.
  2. Proactive Industry Engagement: Producers in Japan actively participate in waste reduction and recycling initiatives, often collaborating with local governments.

Applicability in India:

India could consider adopting Japan’s comprehensive approach to waste management, covering a broader spectrum of materials. Encouraging active participation from producers in waste reduction initiatives could also prove beneficial.

2. Unique Challenges in the Indian Context

While international EPR models provide valuable insights, India faces unique challenges when implementing a plastic waste management system:
  • Informal Recycling Sector: India has a significant informal recycling sector that plays a vital role in waste management. Any EPR model in India must acknowledge and integrate these informal recyclers into the formal system.
  • Varying Regional Capacities: India’s states differ significantly in their waste management infrastructure and capabilities. An EPR model must be adaptable to accommodate these regional differences.
  • Consumer Awareness: Raising consumer awareness about responsible plastic usage and disposal is a critical challenge in India, which requires a targeted approach.
  • Product Diversity: India has a wide range of products, many of which are not standardised, making it challenging to implement a uniform EPR system.

3. Applicability of International EPR Models in India

Considering the unique challenges in the Indian context, certain aspects of international EPR models can be adapted for a more suitable implementation:
  • Multi-Stakeholder Engagement: Canada’s approach to involving multiple stakeholders, including industry, government, and civil society, can be applied in India to foster a more holistic approach to plastic waste management. This would require active participation and collaboration among stakeholders at all levels.
  • Producer Responsibility: The EU’s stringent targets for recycling and waste management could serve as a guideline for India. Producers should be held accountable for their products throughout their life cycle, including their disposal. However, India should consider the diverse capacities of producers and adopt a more proportional responsibility system.
  • Harmonisation of Regulations: The EU’s harmonised approach to EPR can be a valuable reference for India, especially when promoting consistency in state regulations. Ensuring that EPR rules and targets are consistent and easy to understand can simplify compliance and promote a circular economy.
  • Incentives for Informal Sector: India should recognise the vital role of the informal recycling sector and provide incentives for their involvement in formal waste management systems. Integrating these informal recyclers into the EPR model can enhance its effectiveness.
  • Targeted Consumer Education: India needs a well-planned and targeted approach to raise consumer awareness about responsible plastic usage and disposal. Educational campaigns tailored to different demographics and regions could help address this challenge.
  • Product Categorisation: Given the diversity of products in the Indian market, product categorisation is crucial. India should establish clear guidelines for categorising products and determining EPR obligations based on environmental impact and recyclability.


Plastic waste management through Extended Producer Responsibility is a global necessity, and India is no exception. While international EPR models provide valuable insights, India must adapt and tailor these models to its unique challenges and opportunities. The multi-stakeholder approach from Canada, stringent targets and harmonisation from the EU, comprehensive coverage from Japan, and incentives for the informal recycling sector are all aspects that can be integrated into India’s EPR model.

The success of India’s plastic waste management system will depend on the effective collaboration of stakeholders, producer responsibility, and targeted consumer education, as well as the recognition of the informal recycling sector and the flexibility to accommodate regional differences and diverse product categories. Ultimately, a well-designed and adaptable EPR system can significantly contribute to a more sustainable and responsible approach to plastic waste management in India.

Diksha Khiatani

A writer by day and a reader at night. Emerging from an Engineering background, Diksha has completed her M. Tech in Computer Science field. Being passionate about writing, she started her career as a Writer. She finds it interesting and always grabs time to research and write about Environmental laws and compliances. With extensive knowledge on content writing, she has been delivering high-quality write-ups. Besides, you will often find her with a novel and a cuppa!