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Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of Scrap Metal Import

Safety and Environmental Regulations for Handling Metal Scrap in India


Safety and Environmental Regulations for Handling Metal Scrap in India: Handling metal scrap in India is subject to various security and environmental regulations to ensure the well-being of workers, the protection of the environment, and the sustainable management of scrap materials. These regulations are implemented to mitigate the potential risks concerning the collection, transportation, and processing of metal scrap. In this blog, we will analyse the critical safety and environmental regulations that govern the handling of metal scrap in India.

1. The Factories Act, 1948:

The Factories Act 1948 is one of the primary legislations that regulate the safety and welfare of workers in factories, including those involved in metal scrap handling facilities. Under this act, factories must provide a safe and healthy working environment. It mandates that scrap handling facilities must take measures to prevent accidents, minimise the risk of occupational diseases, and ensure the welfare of workers.

Key provisions under The Factories Act 1948 include:

  • Safety Measures: Factories must provide safety equipment, such as helmets, gloves, and safety goggles, to workers involved in scrap handling.
  • Welfare Facilities: Adequate welfare facilities like clean drinking water, sanitary facilities, and first-aid facilities must be provided for the well-being of workers.
  • Proper Lighting and Ventilation: The act emphasises the importance of appropriate lighting and ventilation in factories to ensure a safe working environment.
  • Appointment of Safety Officers: Large factories engaged in scrap handling may be required to appoint safety officers to oversee and enforce safety regulations.

2. The Mines Act, 1952:

While primarily focused on regulating mining activities, the Mines Act 1952 is relevant to scrap handling facilities. It specifies certain safety measures that apply to workers handling metal scrap.

Key provisions under The Mines Act 1952 include:

  • Health and Safety Measures: The act outlines specific health and safety measures for workers in mines and ore processing plants, some of which are relevant to scrap handling, such as provisions for ventilation, sanitation, and protective gear.
  • Appointment of Competent Persons: Mines and scrap handling facilities may need to appoint competent persons to guarantee the safety of workers and compliance with the act’s provisions.

3. The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988:

The Motor Vehicles Act 1988 regulates the use of motor vehicles in India. It has implications for transporting metal scrap, as it sets standards for the safety of vehicles and drivers.

Key provisions under The Motor Vehicles Act 1988 include:

  • Vehicle Safety Standards: The act prescribes safety standards for motor vehicles, including those used for transporting metal scrap.
  • Licensing of Drivers: It mandates that drivers of vehicles carrying hazardous materials, including certain types of metal scrap, must have a special license.
  • Transportation of Hazardous Goods: Vehicles transporting hazardous goods, including some types of metal scrap, must display warning signs and comply with safety regulations.

4. Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016:

The Hazardous & Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016 provide guidelines for the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, which may include certain types of metal scrap.

Key provisions under these rules include:

  • Classification of Hazardous Wastes: These rules classify hazardous wastes into different categories, and metal scrap containing hazardous substances falls under this classification.
  • Authorisation for Handling and Storage: Facilities involved in handling hazardous wastes, including certain types of metal scrap, must obtain authorisation from the relevant authorities.
  • Safe Storage and Transportation: The rules specify requirements for the secure storage, transportation, and disposal of hazardous wastes to prevent environmental contamination.

5. Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, and Water (P&CP) Act, 1974:

These acts are essential for regulating the impact of industrial activities, including metal scrap handling, on air and water quality.

Key provisions under these acts include:

  • Consent for Establishment and Operation: Facilities handling metal scrap that have the potential to discharge pollutants into the air or water must obtain consent for establishment and operation from the respective State Pollution Control Boards.
  • Effluent and Emission Standards: The acts set standards for the maximum permissible levels of pollutants released into the air and water, which are essential for facilities engaged in metal scrap processing.
  • Monitoring and Reporting: Facilities must monitor their emissions and effluents and regularly report the data to the pollution control authorities.

6. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986:

The Environment (Protection) Act (EPA) of 1986 is a comprehensive legislation aimed at protecting and improving the quality of the environment. It empowers the Central Government to take measures to safeguard the environment, including regulating activities related to metal scrap handling.

Key provisions under this act include:

  • Regulation of Activities: The act allows the Central Government to regulate or prohibit certain activities that have the potential to cause environmental pollution or damage, including those related to the handling of metal scrap.
  • Setting of Environmental Standards: The act empowers the Central Government to establish environmental standards for various activities, and facilities handling metal scrap must comply with these standards.
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): Large scrap handling facilities may be required to undergo an EIA to evaluate the potential environmental impact of their operations.

7. The Occupational Safety, Health, and Working Conditions Code, 2020:

The Occupational Safety, Health, & Working Conditions Code, 2020 is a comprehensive code consolidating and modernising various labor laws in India. It has provisions related to occupational safety and health that apply to metal scrap handling facilities.

Key provisions under this code include:

  • Working Conditions: The code lays down provisions related to working conditions, including working hours, rest intervals, and overtime pay, which are relevant to workers in scrap handling facilities.
  • Occupational Safety and Health: It includes provisions for ensuring occupational safety and health, including preventing accidents and occupational diseases in the workplace.
  • Welfare Facilities: The code mandates that facilities provide appropriate welfare facilities for workers, including clean drinking water, restrooms, and first-aid facilities.

8. The Scrap Recycling Policy, 2021:

The Scrap Recycling Policy, 2021 is a recent development promoting environmentally responsible recycling of scrap materials, including metal scrap. While not a regulatory framework, it sets out guidelines for the safe and sustainable handling of scrap.

Key provisions under this policy include:

  • Promotion of Recycling: The policy encourages the recycling of scrap materials to reduce the environmental impact of metal production and consumption.
  • Awareness and Training: It emphasises the need for awareness and training programs to ensure safe and responsible handling of scrap materials.
  • Incentives for Compliance: The policy suggests incentivising businesses that adopt environmentally responsible scrap handling practices.
  • Reducing Imports: The policy aims to reduce the import of scrap materials by promoting domestic recycling, which aligns with the government’s “Make in India” initiative.

In addition to these central regulations, individual states in India may have their own rules and regulations related to scrap handling and environmental protection. Scrap handling facilities must know and comply with central and state-specific laws.


The handling of metal scrap in India is subject to a comprehensive set of safety and environmental regulations aimed at protecting the well-being of workers, preventing environmental pollution, and promoting sustainable scrap management. Compliance with these rules is essential for businesses involved in scrap handling to ensure the safety of workers and the preservation of the environment. As the recycling industry continues to grow, adherence to these regulations will play a vital role in the sustainable and responsible management of metal scrap in India.

Diksha Khiatani

A writer by day and a reader at night. Emerging from an Engineering background, Diksha has completed her M. Tech in Computer Science field. Being passionate about writing, she started her career as a Writer. She finds it interesting and always grabs time to research and write about Environmental laws and compliances. With extensive knowledge on content writing, she has been delivering high-quality write-ups. Besides, you will often find her with a novel and a cuppa!