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Conditions for Patentability in India


Last Updated on June 10, 2024 by Kanakkupillai

Patentability in India is controlled by the Patents Act of 1970, which explains the exact conditions that an idea must meet to be accepted for patent protection. These conditions ensure that only new, creative, and industrially useful ideas are given patents, backing creativity and scientific growth in the country. The Act offers a framework for determining the patentability of an idea based on its novelty, creative step, and industrial application, as well as the clarity and conciseness of its statement and claims. By sticking to these conditions, artists can protect their intellectual property rights and help the growth of India’s creative environment.

Conditions for Patentability

1. Novelty

Novelty is a basic condition for patentability in India. An idea must be new and not clear, meaning it must not be forecast by prior work. The prior art includes books, known methods, and sold goods. The invention must not have been made available to the public before the patent application filing date. Novelty is chosen by comparing the product with past work, and the thought must be significantly different from known knowledge. The Indian Rights Act supports total freshness, ensuring that only truly new ideas are given rights.

2. Inventive Step

The creative step is a key condition for patentability in India. An invention must involve a technical improvement or economic importance, making it non-obvious to a person skilled in the art. The Indian Patents Act describes a creative step as a trait of an idea that includes a technical improvement as compared to existing knowledge or having economic significance or both. The Supreme Court’s important decision in Bishwanath Prasad Radhey Shyam v. Hindustan Metal Industries stresses that an invention must be more than a mere workshop improvement and must independently meet the test of invention or creative step.

3. Industrial Applicability

Industrial application is a key condition for patentability in India. An idea must be capable of being made or used in an industry, which is defined widely to include agriculture, manufacturing, and business operations. The idea must have real value and a specific, non-speculative use that can be directly drawn from the patent statement. While commercial success is not required, the idea must have some business value and the possibility of profit, as no industry would use something useless. The industrial utility requirement helps ensure that only inventions with real uses and business prospects are given patents.

4. Clear and Concise Description

The Indian Patents Act requires that the invention be explained in a clear and concise way, allowing a person trained in the art to make and use the creation. The description must be thorough enough to allow repetition of the idea but not so long as to be confusing. It must share the best method of performing the idea known to the application at the time of filing. The explanation should provide sufficient information for a person skilled in the art to carry out the idea without undue experimentation. This condition ensures that the public can benefit from the idea once the copyright time ends.

5. Claims

The claims are an important part of a patent application in India. They must be clear, specific, and thorough, describing the reach of the idea. The claims should correctly describe the invention’s new traits and separate it from the prior art. The Indian Patents Act emphasizes that the claims should be short yet complete and should not be too broad or too narrow. The claims should also be consistent with the text and images given in the patent application. Clear and well-defined claims help ensure that the patent is valid and that the public knows the limits of the invention’s security.

6. Supporting Documents

Supporting papers are important for patent applications in India. They must be given to show the invention’s novelty and creative step. These records can include prior art references, expert studies, and other related materials that show how the idea varies from current knowledge. They must be carefully chosen and presented to effectively support the patent application. The supporting papers should be detailed and thorough, giving a clear understanding of the invention’s creative features and how they solve a particular problem or need. This helps the patent office determine the patentability of the invention and ensures that the patent is given only for truly new and inventive ideas.


Patentability in India is controlled by specific conditions stated in the Patents Act of 1970. These factors ensure that an idea is new, creative, and industrially practical. They also ensure that the idea can be clearly explained and claimed. The conditions are meant to support science and technological breakthroughs while protecting intellectual property rights.

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G.Durghasree B.A.B.L (Hons)

G Durghasree B.A.B.L (Hons) is a registered trademark attorney with extensive experience as an Advocate for a period of 8 years. She possesses expertise in trademark law, including trademark filing and trademark hearings. Additionally, she is skilled in contract drafting and reviewing, providing legal advice and opinions, particularly in the areas of Company Law, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), and Goods and Service Tax Law (GST). Her experience encompasses both litigation and non-litigation aspects of these laws.