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Understanding the Role and Responsibility of Filing ROC in India


In India’s corporate governance realm, filing with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) is a crucial obligation that every registered company must adhere to. At Kanakkupillai, we understand the significance of complying with ROC requirements. This comprehensive guide will delve into the intricacies of who is responsible for filing ROC in India.

Introduction to ROC Filing

The Registrar of Companies, commonly known as ROC, is a governmental body responsible for regulating and overseeing companies’ functioning and compliance with the Companies Act, 2013. ROCs are present in various states and union territories across India, ensuring that companies within their jurisdiction abide by statutory provisions.

Key Responsibilities for Filing ROC

1. Board of Directors

The primary responsibility for filing ROC documents falls on the board of directors of a company. These individuals are entrusted with the governance and decision-making of the company, including compliance matters. Key responsibilities of the board include:

  • Appointing a Company Secretary: One of the initial steps in ensuring ROC compliance is appointing a qualified Company Secretary who plays a pivotal role in handling ROC filings.
  • Resolutions and Meeting Minutes: The board is responsible for documenting the resolutions passed during board meetings and maintaining accurate minutes. These records play a crucial role in ROC filings.
  • Annual Financial Statements: Preparing and approving the company’s annual financial statements, which include the balance sheet, profit and loss statement, and cash flow statement, is essential for ROC filing.
  • Annual General Meeting (AGM): The board must convene an AGM within the stipulated timeframe, during which financial statements are presented to shareholders and filed with the ROC.

2. Company Secretary

A Company Secretary (CS) is a designated officer responsible for ensuring the company’s compliance with ROC requirements. The CS plays a pivotal role in managing and overseeing ROC filing procedures. Their responsibilities include:

  • Maintaining Statutory Registers: The CS must keep the company’s statutory registers updated, including the Register of Members, Register of Directors, and Register of Charges.
  • Filing Annual Returns: Annually, the CS is responsible for preparing and filing the company’s annual return with the ROC. This document contains vital information about the company’s activities.
  • Handling e-filings: ROC filings are mostly done online in the digital age. The CS should be well-versed in using the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) portal for e-filing.

3. Auditors

External auditors also have a role in ROC compliance. They are responsible for auditing the company’s financial statements and ensuring their accuracy before submission to the ROC.

ROC Filing Procedures

1. Obtain Director Identification Number (DIN): Directors must obtain a DIN from the MCA as a unique identifier. This is a prerequisite for filing various ROC forms.

2. Digital Signature Certificate (DSC): Individuals involved in ROC filings, such as directors and the CS, must obtain a DSC to submit documents electronically. This ensures the authenticity of the documents filed.

3. Filing Annual Returns: Annual returns, including financial statements and other required documents, must be filed with the ROC within the specified timelines.

4. Statutory Registers: Companies must maintain and update various statutory registers per the Companies Act 2013. These registers should be readily available for inspection by ROC officials.


In summary, complying with ROC filing requirements in India is a shared responsibility involving the board of directors, the Company Secretary, and external auditors. Each entity plays a crucial role in ensuring that the company operates within the framework of the law. Failure to adhere to ROC obligations can result in penalties and legal consequences. Therefore, companies must stay informed and proactive in fulfilling their ROC obligations to maintain good corporate standing in India.


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