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What are the different types of partnership firms in India?


What are the different types of partnership firms in India?

General Partnership

1. Definition:

According to the Indian Partnership Act, of 1932, a general partnership is a type of business organization where two or more people come together to operate a business for profit while equally splitting the tasks and liabilities.

The terms and conditions established by the partners in a general partnership are outlined in a partnership registration, which is a binding legal document. It includes topics like profit-sharing, decision-making, roles and responsibilities, capital contributions, conflict resolution, and dissolution of the partnership.

2. Characteristics:

A general partnership has unlimited liability, which means that each partner is responsible for the debts, responsibilities, and liabilities of the partnership on their own and together with other partners. This means that, in the event of a financial shortfall, an individual’s assets may be used to fulfill the partnership’s obligations.

Unless otherwise stated in the partnership agreement, partners in a general partnership usually shares profits, losses, and management responsibilities equally. This guarantees an equitable division of profits and operational decision-making among the partners.

In a general partnership, each partner has joint ownership and control over the business, which means they jointly own it and decide how it will be operated, managed, and headed.

3. Advantages:

A general partnership has advantages including ease of formation and minimal compliance requirements. It is a simple and open business structure since participants can create the partnership instantly without the need for laborious legal formalities.

A general partnership allows for a collective and diversified variety of viewpoints and expertise because decision-making is shared among the partners. The partners’ combined knowledge, expertise, and experience can result in informed decision-making that is both efficient and advantageous to the partnership.

A general partnership gives flexibility in profit-sharing and management, allowing partners to decide how profits are distributed and how management duties are assigned by their mutually agreed-upon parameters.

4. Disadvantages:

A general partnership’s unlimited liability exposes participants’ assets to the possibility of being utilized to pay off the partnership’s debts and liabilities.

Differences in viewpoint, decision-making, finances, or other business-related factors can lead to disagreements and conflicts among partners in a general partnership. The stability and efficacy of the relationship may be impacted by how these issues are resolved, which can be difficult.

As it depends on the presence and willingness of the participants, a general partnership lacks perpetual existence and continuity. When a partner leaves or dies, the partnership may be dissolved, necessitating its reformation or ceasing to exist.

5. Suitable Businesses:

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can benefit from general partnerships because of their simplicity, flexibility, and convenience of creation. SMEs frequently gain from a general partnership’s shared resources, knowledge, and cooperative decision-making.

Professional service companies like law firms and accounting firms are a perfect fit for general partnerships. These companies may supply comprehensive services and efficiently manage customer relationships by combining their partners’ skills and knowledge.

For family-owned businesses, general partnerships can be the perfect organizational model. They preserve a sense of unity and control within the family while enabling family members to collaborate, contribute their unique talents and resources, and share in the profits and duties.

Limited Partnership

1. Definition:

In a limited partnership, there are two different kinds of partners: general partners and limited partners. Limited partners have limited liability and can only contribute capital; general partners control the company and have unlimited liability.

In a limited partnership, the general partners are in charge of running the day-to-day management and business operations and are subject to unlimited responsibility. While limited partners do not actively participate in the management or decision-making of the partnership, they do have limited liability and make financial contributions.

2. Characteristics:

Both general partners and limited partners are combined in a limited partnership. Limited partners provide funds without actively taking part in management decisions or operations, whereas general partners have limited liability and govern the company.

In a limited partnership, the debts and liabilities of the partnership are personally liable to the general partners, who have unlimited responsibility. However, limited partners are protected from personal liability to the extent of their capital contributions to the partnership.

In a limited partnership, the limited partners normally do not take part in managing or running the company’s daily activities. They play a supporting function, and the most they often contribute is capital and a cut of earnings.

3. Advantages:

Being protected from liability is one of the benefits of a limited partnership. Their assets are protected from being utilized to pay partnership debts or obligations since their responsibility is only as great as the capital contributions they made.

A benefit of a limited partnership is that general partners have more control than limited partners do in the management and decision-making of the company. They are in charge of the operations with more power and accountability.

A limited partnership structure offers the chance to entice passive investors to join as limited partners, where they can contribute money without actively participating in the operation of the company.

4. Disadvantages:

The limitless liability of general partners is a disadvantage of a limited partnership. They are personally liable for the debts and obligations of the partnership, placing their assets at risk if the partnership has financial obligations or legal problems.

In a limited partnership, managing both types of partners might be challenging. Decision-making, communication, and upholding harmonious relationships within the partnership may be made more difficult by the general partners’ need to strike a balance between their management obligations and taking into account the interests of the limited partners.

Compared to other company structures, limited partnerships are less well-known and popular in India, with many enterprises choosing general partnerships or private limited companies instead.

5. Suitable Businesses:

Real estate ventures frequently make good use of limited partnerships. As limited partners, they let investors contribute funds while general partners take care of property acquisitions, developments, and operations.

Venture capital and private equity firms benefit from limited partnerships. While general partners, who are skilled in investment management, control the fund’s operations and make investment choices on behalf of the partnership, limited partners can make capital investments.

Limited partnerships can be advantageous for companies looking to expand and needing more financing. General partners oversee the expansion and day-to-day operations of the company while limited partners can make financial contributions.

Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

1. Definition:

A Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is a type of hybrid business form that combines aspects of corporations and partnerships. It offers limited liability protection to its partners while preserving the adaptability of a partnership structure.

In India, the establishment, operation, and regulation of limited liability partnerships are all governed under the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 (LLPA). It regulates LLP creation, rights, liabilities, and dissolution, among other things.

2. Characteristics:

All partners in a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) have limited liability, which is one of its main characteristics. This protects partners’ assets from being utilized to settle business liabilities because they are not held personally accountable for the debts and obligations of the LLP.

An LLP has perpetual succession, which means it survives changes in or leaving partners. It also has a different legal identity from its partners, enabling it to hold property, enter into agreements, and file or defend legal actions under its name.

Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) provide flexibility in profit-sharing and management . Based on their mutual agreement and the LLP agreement, partners may decide how to divide earnings and assign management duties.

3. Advantages:

All partners have limited liability protection, which guarantees the protection of their assets by limiting their liability to the amount of their capital contribution to the LLP.

The LLP’s easy transferability of ownership permits partners to transfer their ownership shares in the LLP by the agreed-upon parameters, facilitating business continuity and investment flexibility.

LLPs have fewer compliance requirements than corporations do, which eases the stress of legal duties including formal meetings and audit procedures.

4. Disadvantages:

LLP formation and compliance procedures can be complicated, involving careful record-keeping and adherence to regulatory requirements.

A limitation on LLPs’ ability to raise capital from the general public limits their alternatives for funding.

Third-party stakeholder distrust or limited acceptance of this corporate form may result from LLPs’ lack of familiarity and understanding.

5. Suitable Businesses:

LLPs are advantageous for businesses that provide professional services because they provide liability protection and flexible profit-sharing.

The LLP form, which offers limited liability and simple ownership transfer, benefits creative industries like design agencies and advertising firms.

LLPs are a popular choice for startups and entrepreneurial ventures because of their adaptable administration, limited liability, and straightforward compliance requirements.


In conclusion, Kanakkupillai is a reputable platform that can help companies through the complexity of business forms like general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships (LLPs). Kanakkupillai offers invaluable insights and helps to maintain compliance, manage risks, and accomplish the required business objectives whether starting a new firm or converting an existing one.

FAQ on different types of partnership firms

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Kanakkupillai is your reliable partner for every step of your business journey in India. We offer reasonable and expert assistance to ensure legal compliance, covering business registration, tax compliance, accounting and bookkeeping, and intellectual property protection. Let us help you navigate the complex legal and regulatory requirements so you can focus on growing your business. Contact us today to learn more.