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What is the Difference Between Pvt Ltd and Ltd Company?


Last Updated on February 7, 2024 by Kanakkupillai

In general, “Ltd” stands for a Public Limited Company, while “Pvt Ltd” stands for a Private Limited Company. When private individuals or entities control a company’s shares, sometimes by a group of promoters, the business is referred to as a private limited company. In contrast, anyone can buy shares in a public limited company, or “Ltd,” and ownership is spread among the public rather than being concentrated in the hands of a small number of promoters.

Essential Distinctions Between Pvt. Ltd. and Ltd

In addition to the already mentioned differences, there is a noticeable difference between the maximum number of shareholders permitted in Ltd and Pvt Ltd companies.

For Pvt Ltd firms, there must be a minimum of two shareholders, meaning the number of stockholders can be as low as two people or things. However, a Pvt Ltd company is only allowed 50 shareholders. This implies that a Pvt Ltd company’s ownership continues to be largely concentrated within a small number of people or entities, encouraging a feeling of privacy and control among the shareholders.

On the other hand, a minimum of seven shareholders are necessary to form a Ltd (Public Limited) business. A more widely distributed ownership structure is often the result of this higher threshold, which guarantees a larger base of ownership. Notably, there is no established maximum for the number of shareholders in a Ltd company. Because there is no maximum number of shareholders for Ltd businesses, the number of shareholders may reach thousands or more, depending on the size and nature of the business. Public firms are defined by their wide ownership base, which frequently leads to the distribution of ownership among a diverse group of individuals and institutional investors, making them publicly traded enterprises.

A striking distinction becomes apparent as we look more into share distribution. In contrast to Pvt Ltd companies, shares in an Ltd or Public Limited firm can be purchased and sold easily. If transferring shares in a Private Limited company becomes necessary, all shareholders must provide their written consent. Pvt Ltd firms cannot market their shares through a public offering; hence, this condition exists. On the other hand, Public Limited companies can announce a public offering through a series of advertising efforts.w

The advantage of having shares of a Ltd corporation, which is normally a Public Limited Company, listed on the National Stock Exchange or other stock markets. Through this listing, interested parties can buy and sell these shares on the open market, including members of the public and institutional investors. A stock market listing is a typical strategy to accomplish this when a company goes public and transforms into a Ltd. This is frequently done to raise money from a variety of investors.

Pvt Ltd companies, which are often Private Limited Companies, on the other hand, do not have their shares listed on stock markets. This indicates that Pvt Ltd company shares are not traded on a public market. Instead, a closed group of private individuals or entities, such as the company’s founders, investors, or workers, often retain ownership in Pvt Ltd companies.

All entities are subject to strict laws and regulations that control their operational structure. The Indian Government does not apply strict guidelines or rules for managing business operations and interactions when we focus on Pvt Ltd companies. Therefore, Pvt Ltd companies operate under a more lenient regulatory environment.

Importance of Ltd Companies

Because their shares are traded publicly, public limited companies often keep bigger working capital reserves. Individuals and institutions can invest in the company by making shares available on the open market, providing it with significant capital. This cash infusion improves the company’s cash flow, empowering it to take advantage of development possibilities, fulfil financial commitments, and deal more effectively with market changes. The public trading of shares improves the company’s financial flexibility and ability to carry out strategic initiatives, which also attracts a wide range of investors. Because of their greater access to capital than their Private Limited counterparts, Public Limited Companies are distinguished from them.

Since their shares are listed on platforms like hedge funds, mutual funds, and others, public limited corporations draw more attention from traders who monitor the company’s performance. Public limited companies have the chance to experience accelerated growth through these routes.

A Public Limited Company, or PLC for short, is entitled to perpetual succession, meaning it will continue to exist until Indian authorities formally liquidate it. PLCs are separate legal entities; therefore, the death or departure of one owner does not affect the continuity of the business. However, the new Board of Directors can modify the membership if necessary.

Importance of Pvt Ltd Companies

Private Limited Companies offer a degree of protection for personal assets because the shareholders of such enterprises have limited liability. To put it, in a partnership business, an owner’s responsibility to cover the company’s debts extends only to the amount they have invested in the venture. They are not obligated to use their assets to settle these debts, as personal liability is not a factor.

Because Private Limited Companies (Pvt Ltd) have restrictions that prevent owners from raising cash through stock, startup founders sometimes choose to register their businesses as Public Limited Companies (PLCs). This restriction reduces the possibility of expansion and raises the burden of debt.

Due to their legal approval by the Registrar of Companies (ROC) by the Companies Act, which has been in effect since 2013, Private Limited Companies are more reliable. By going to the MCA portal, any person has the right to access the metadata of an enterprise. The directors’ information is also kept up to date on this page, making it possible to learn more about them. As a result, the Private Limited business model seems to be a reliable option.

Types of Companies

  • Limited Liability Partnership
  • NGO
  • One Person Company
  • Proprietorship Firm
  • Partnership firm

Brief Study on Each Company Type:

A comparison of the various business structures, including Ltd Companies, Pvt Ltd Companies, LLPs (Limited Liability Partnerships), and OPCs (One Person Companies), is shown below.

Ltd Companies:

  • Businesses with high turnover rates frequently choose to register.
  • Calls for a minimum of 7 participants.
  • High compliance.
  • 25% taxation; no MAT (Minimum Alternate Tax) is necessary.
  • ESOPs (Employee Stock Ownership Plans) may be issued.
  • Easiest for fundraising among these models.

Pvt Ltd Companies:

  • No public offering of shares.
  • Requires a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 50 members.
  • Moderate compliance.
  • 30% taxation + EC and SC (Secondary and Higher Education Cess).
  • Offers employees ESOPs.
  • Partner contributions to the fundraising effort are necessary.

Limited Liability Partnerships, or LLPs:

  • Businesses that focus on services.
  • Need at least two partners.
  • Low conformity.
  • 30% tax rate with MAT in effect.
  • In most cases, ESOPs are not relevant.
  • A Moderate amount of money is needed to operate.

One-person companies (OPCs):

  • Possessed by a solitary owner.
  • Only one owner is allowed.
  • Moderate conformity.
  • 30% tax rate with MAT in effect.
  • In most cases, ESOPs are not relevant.
  • Fundraising is challenging.

These comparisons highlight the main distinctions between these numerous business structure options regarding membership criteria, compliance, tax implications, ESOPs, and fundraising. The best structure can be chosen depending on the particular demands and objectives of the firm.

A company is categorized as a private firm if its shares are held privately, whereas public limited companies (PLCs) permit open investment. PLCs are reputable for their steadfast dedication to legal compliance, which makes them a trustworthy option for investors. However, each category has advantages and disadvantages that must be carefully considered to fully comprehend how their businesses operate.


In conclusion, choosing the ideal business structure is an important decision for business owners. Whether choosing the accessibility and transparency of a Public Limited Company or the privacy and control of a Private Limited Company, each choice has its own set of benefits and disadvantages. The choice should align with the company’s requirements, objectives, and plans for expansion.

Kanakkupillai is a helpful resource for companies seeking advice on these issues in India. We are a recognized service provider that offers knowledgeable support with taxation, compliance, business registration, and other crucial facets of establishing a business. With the aid of our knowledge and experience, businesses are better able to structure themselves wisely and negotiate the difficult regulatory environment. Making the right choice for your company’s organizational structure can significantly impact its success. Kanakkupillai is here to assist businesses in choosing the best course of action for their particular circumstances.

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